Purpose of pathology
Posted by Master, Doctor Ha Thi Thu Hien - Laboratory Department - Vinmec Times City International Hospital
Pathological testing is performed on samples of cells, tissue samples from organs in the body that are biopsied during endoscopy, needle biopsy or during surgery. gold standard in the diagnosis of diseases, especially malignancies.
1.What is pathology?
Pathology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis of disease based on the analysis of samples of tissues and cells of the body under a microscope. Tissues and fluids are removed from organs and parts of the body, processed into slides and analyzed under a microscope by pathologists. The results after analysis are given in the pathology report, explaining the nature of the lesion or tumor.
The results of histopathological tests help clinicians make a treatment plan suitable for each patient.
2. Purpose, role, scope of pathology
Pathological examination is considered the gold standard in disease diagnosis, especially malignancies. Pathological examination is performed on samples of cells, tissue samples from organs in the body that are biopsied during endoscopy, needle biopsy or during surgery.
Pathology services include:
Cytopathology Pap smear or Thinprep cervical cytology for screening and detection of cervical cancer early supply. Cytology of the thyroid, mammary glands, and other tumors helps detect malignancies when they are very small. Cytology of body fluids Cytology: Microscopic appearance of the Pap Smear test. The central pink cells with a large nucleus are abnormal, consistent with a low-grade intraepithelial lesion. Slide is stained with Papanicolaou
Histopathology This test shows the nature of the lesion, benign, malignant, histological grade, extent of invasion...
Histopathology: Appearance under the microscope of invasive carcinoma of the breast. The slides were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin.
Biopsy tissue samples through endoscopy of stomach, esophagus, colon, bronchus... Percutaneous needle biopsy tissue samples such as: Biopsy of breast, lung, liver, pancreas, kidney, lymph nodes, masses tumor is located deep in the abdomen, behind the peritoneum.... Tissue samples taken from surgical specimens such as: stomach, colon, liver, lung, brain.... Immunohistochemistry.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the process of selectively identifying antigens (proteins) in the cells of a tissue sample by the principle that antigens specifically bind to antibodies.
Immunohistochemical staining is widely used in diagnosis such as:
Helps determine the origin of undifferentiated tumors. Helps to differentiate between lesions with similar histological images: benign or malignant tumor, which organ is the tumor. Helps establish the presence of a functional property Helps to classify malignant lymphomas Identify the source of metastatic cancer. Determining the presence of a prognostic factor Targeted expression for treatment Viral protein expression... For scientific research Immediate intraoperative biopsy, also known as cryo-section (Frozen section) ) is a rapid histopathological test (with results after 15 to 30 minutes) performed right while the surgeon is operating
This test is indicated when:
The surgeon does not know the nature of the tumor is benign or malignant. The surgeon wants to know if the lesion has been removed or not The surgeon wants to know the extent of the tumor to decide on the type of surgery for the patient (total or conservative resection) in particular or applied to breast cancer and thyroid cancer . Thanks to this test method, the patient does not have to have a second surgery, the surgeon does not have to wait for long results and offers a reasonable surgical method for the patient.
3. Application of pathological testing
Pathology tests are widely applied in medicine to:
Screening, early detection of cancer Diagnosing disease accurately, nature of lesions Prognosis, stage of malignancies Provide tissue samples gene analysis. Scientific research. Pathological examination should be performed when:
When the client comes to a general health check (screening for early detection of cancer). When the customer came to the gastroscopy.... a biopsy was performed. When the client comes to do surgery, procedures for tumors and suspicious lesions. Perform pathological tests when the client is undergoing cancer treatment. Vinmec International General Hospital with a system of modern facilities, medical equipment and a team of experts and doctors with many years of experience in neurological examination and treatment, patients can completely rest in peace. Center for examination and treatment at the Hospital.
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