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Value of PET, PET/CT, CT and MRI in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease


Doctors take two approaches to diagnosing Alzheimer's disease. First, they asked the patient questions and filled out one of the standardized questionnaires that assessed memory and other parts of thinking. Second, doctors will order different tests to rule out other conditions that can affect mental function. There is no direct test for Alzheimer's disease, or for the risk of developing it. This article will clarify the value of PET, PET/CT, CT and MRI in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

1. What is Alzheimer's disease?


Alzheimer's disease is a progressive form of dementia or dementia. Dementia is a broader term that refers to conditions caused by brain injuries or diseases that negatively affect a person's memory, thoughts and actions and bring difficulties in life. their daily. According to the Alzheimer's Association, Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60-80% of dementia cases. Most people with the disease are diagnosed when they are over 65 years old. Before that age, the disease is often referred to as early-onset Alzheimer's.
Currently there is no specific drug used to treat Alzheimer's disease, but there are several methods that have been shown to slow the progression of the disease. Although many people have heard of Alzheimer's disease, they are not really sure what it is. Here are some facts you may not have known about this disease:
Alzheimer's is a chronic condition Alzheimer's symptoms come on gradually and cause effects on the brain, which means they cause slow changes. There is no specific cure for Alzheimer's disease, but the treatments used can slow the progression of the disease and improve quality of life. Anyone can get Alzheimer's disease. However, there are certain groups of people who are at higher risk than others, including people over the age of 65 and those with a family history of the disease. Alzheimer's disease is a type of dementia Some outcomes may not be as expected for people with Alzheimer's disease. Specifically, some people experience only mild cognitive impairment while others experience more severe and rapidly progressive symptoms.
Nguồn gốc bệnh Alzheimer
Người cao tuổi thuộc nhóm đối tượng có nguy cơ cao mắc bệnh Alzheimer

2. Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease


People with Alzheimer's disease have periods of memory decline over time with specific behaviors or symptoms including:
Memory loss that affects everyday activities such as the ability to remember things appointments, trouble with daily routines such as how to use the washing machine, microwave, etc. Difficulty solving everyday problems. Becoming disoriented about time or place Difficulty performing daily personal hygiene Frequent mood and personality changes Limit contact with family, friends, and community. Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease will vary depending on the stage of the disease. Detecting symptoms early and getting treatment can slow the progression of the disease and limit potentially serious complications.
3. Stages of Alzheimer's Disease As discussed above, Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disease, which means that its symptoms gradually worsen over time. Alzheimer's disease is divided into seven stages, including:
Stage 1: This stage usually shows no symptoms but early diagnoses can be made based on a family history of the disease. Stage 2: Early symptoms of the disease begin to appear, typically forgetfulness. Stage 3: Mild physical and mental impairments begin to appear during this stage, such as memory loss or frequent loss of concentration. These symptoms can often only be detected by people who are very close to the person. Stage 4: Alzheimer's disease is often diagnosed at this stage. However, symptoms in stage 4 disease are still mostly considered mild symptoms, typically memory loss and reduced ability to perform daily tasks. Stage 5: Moderate to severe symptoms gradually appear. Patients in this stage need support from relatives or primary caregivers in all tasks. Stage 6: At this stage, a person with Alzheimer's disease may need help with even simple tasks such as eating, bathing, changing clothes... Stage 7: This is stage the last and most severe of Alzheimer's disease. Patients may lose their language and facial expressions completely.
Hay quên
Bệnh Alzheimer xuất hiện với những triệu chứng sớm như hay quên

As an Alzheimer's patient progresses through the above stages of the disease, they will need increasing support from a loved one or primary caregiver.
4. Causes and Risk Factors of Alzheimer's Disease Doctors and researchers have not been able to identify the specific cause of Alzheimer's disease, but they have found certain factors do. increased risk of disease. Those factors include:
Age: Most people with Alzheimer's are in the age group 65 or older Family history: Family members with a close relative with Alzheimer's have a higher risk of developing the disease, compared with others. other. This claim has been proven by many studies. Heredity: Some genes associated with Alzheimer's disease can be passed on from previous generations. It should be noted that the above factors are not the cause of the disease, but only increase the risk of the disease, which means if you have one of these factors, do not worry because it does not mean you will get Alzheimer's. .

5. Diagnosing Alzheimer's There is no single test that can determine if a person has Alzheimer's disease? A diagnosis is made by assessing the presence of certain symptoms and excluding other causes of dementia. This requires a careful assessment that includes a history of brain-related diseases, a mental health check, a physical and neurological exam, blood tests, and diagnostic imaging tests. Brain scans, including:
Computed tomography (CT-scan) of the head: Doctors use images obtained from CT scans of the brain to look for and rule out causes of memory loss. other, such as a brain tumor, a subdural hematoma, or a stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head: Magnetic resonance imaging uses a strong magnetic field, radiofrequency pulses, and a computer to create detailed images of tissues, organs, and most of the internal structure of the body. body. MRI can detect brain abnormalities associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and can be used to predict whether patients with mild cognitive impairment are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. In the early stages of Alzheimer's disease, magnetic resonance imaging may not be abnormal. However, in the later stages, MRI may show a decrease in the size of different areas of the brain (mainly the temporal lobes).
Chụp MRI sọ não
Chụp cộng hưởng từ (MRI) vùng đầu giúp bác sĩ chẩn đoán chính xác bệnh Alzheimer
PET and PET/CT of the head: Emission tomography (PET) is a diagnostic test that uses a small amount of radioactive material (called a radiotracer) to diagnose and determine the severity of many diseases. A combined PET/CT test combines images from PET and CT scans together to provide details about both the anatomy (from a CT scan) and function (from a PET scan) of organs and tissues. PET/CT scans can help differentiate Alzheimer's disease from other types of dementia. Another nuclear-related medical test called single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is also used for this purpose.

Another application of PET is to use PET scanning together with a new radioactive substance called C-11 PIB, the mechanism of which is based on the accumulation of beta-amyloid plaques in the living brain. Radioactive substances similar to C-11 PIB are currently being developed for clinical use in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.
Alzheimer's is a complex medical condition, with unknown causes as well as specific treatments. Scientists have only identified disease that worsens over time, but treatments can help delay symptoms and improve a person's quality of life. If you suspect that you or a loved one has Alzheimer's, you need to go to medical facilities to be examined, diagnosed and given appropriate treatment.

Vinmec International General Hospital is a reliable address for patients to examine, screen and treat Alzheimer's disease with all the following factors:
A team of highly qualified doctors. Advanced diagnostic methods such as CT scan, MRI scan, the most modern 128-sequence PET/CT system in Southeast Asia, for accurate images and short imaging time, Comprehensive disease treatment, not only treatment disease, but also treat comorbidities very effectively. Patients are carefully instructed about preventive measures and slow down the progression of the disease. The Department of Rehabilitation has exercises to help slow the progression and improve the quality of life of people with Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disease with a high risk of death shortly after diagnosis. However, if the disease is detected early and properly treated in combination with diet and lifestyle, it can reduce disease progression, increase life expectancy and improve quality of life for patients.

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References: radiologyinfo.org, health.harvard.edu, cdc.gov

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