Significance of GGT . biochemical test index

Article written by Doctor Le Duy Cuong - Biochemistry Unit - Laboratory Department, Laboratory Department - Vinmec Times City International General Hospital.

GGT is a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes the transport of gamma-glutamyl groups from molecules such as glutathione to acceptors that can be amino acids, peptides...

1. What is GGT biochemical test?

GGT is an enzyme attached to the cell membrane, which catalyzes the transport of gamma-glutamyl groups from molecules such as glutathione to acceptors that can be amino acids, peptides...
GGT plays a key role in the synthesis of GGT. synthesis and degradation of glutathione, drugs, and xenobiotics. GGT is present in many types of tissues such as kidney, biliary tract, pancreas, heart, brain, ...
Although kidney tissue has the highest concentration of GGT in the body, the presence of GGT in the blood is mainly originating from the hepatobiliary system. GGT activity is elevated in all hepatobiliary diseases, especially in cases of intrahepatic and posthepatic biliary obstruction. GGT activity can be increased 5-30 times above the normal limit. GGT is an enzyme that is more sensitive than ALP, AST, and ALT in detecting obstructive jaundice, cholangitis, cholecystitis, and is also an enzyme that increases earlier and longer than other enzymes.
Increased blood GGT activity may result from the following mechanisms:
Increased GGT synthesis induced by drugs and alcohol Cell membrane damage: GGT is released by toxins (including alcohol), after The result of ischemia, damage to hepatocytes due to GGT virus infection is separated from the cell membrane due to the surfactant effect of bile acids, damage to the bile ducts causes the release of GGT into the blood leading to increased GGT activity. in blood
Tác hại của rượu bia tới gan
Sử dụng rượu có thể gây tăng hoạt độ GGT trong máu

Indications for the GGT test should be used in the following cases:
Diagnosis and monitoring of hepatobiliary disease: GGT is considered to be the most sensitive enzyme parameter for liver disease. When there are manifestations directly or indirectly related to hepatobiliary diseases, GGT is one of the first-line tests to be ordered. Determine whether the elevation of ALP is due to bone disease (normal GGT) or to hepatobiliary disease (both GGT and ALP are elevated). Screening and monitoring of concealed alcoholism (occult alcoholism)

2. What are the results of the GGT test?

Can be classified into 3 levels of elevation of GGT in the blood:
Mild increase (< 2 times): fatty liver Moderate increase (2-5 times): viral hepatitis, drug use, cirrhosis Elevated: (> 5 times) times): biliary obstruction, alcoholic cirrhosis Using the ratio of GGT/ALT can assist in the differential diagnosis between biliary obstruction and pathology due to damage to the hepatocyte membrane:

3. How unusual are these indicators? When to worry?

The reference value of GGT in blood varies by chemical supplier, at Vinmec Times City, the reference value is as follows:
Male: <55U/L Female: < 38 U/L GGT activity increased may be encountered in specific clinical situations as follows:
Liver and biliary diseases (acute and chronic hepatitis, infectious hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer, cholestatic jaundice, remission hepatic steatosis). Liver infiltrates: hyperlipidemia, lymphoma, liver fluke cysts, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, abscess, liver metastases. Cholestatic disease: primary biliary cirrhosis, sclerosing cholangitis, gallstones, cholangiocarcinoma. Pancreatic lesions: acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, ampulla of Valter. Renal lesions: nephrotic syndrome, renal carcinoma.
Các bệnh thường gặp ở gan
Kết quả có trong xét nghiệm GGT phản ánh sức khỏe của gan

The level of GGT in the blood is very sensitive to changes in liver function. Normally, GGT levels in the blood are low, but when the liver is damaged, GGT levels can rise. GGT is a liver enzyme that is elevated in the blood when any of the bile ducts that carry bile from the liver to the intestines are blocked by a tumor or stone. This makes the GGT test the most sensitive liver enzyme in detecting bile duct problems.
However, measuring GGT activity is not a specific test and is not helpful in distinguishing between different causes of liver injury because it can be elevated with many types of liver disease (cancer). liver cancer and viral hepatitis), other diseases such as acute coronary heart disease.
Both GGT and ALP are elevated in liver diseases, but ALP is also elevated in diseases of bone tissue. Therefore, GGT can be used to help identify liver or bone disease in the presence of elevated ALP. Drinking small amounts of alcohol can also increase GGT. Higher elevations are found in chronic alcoholism, further aggravated in those who consume 2-3 drinks per day or those who drink heavily on party occasions. The GGT test can be used in evaluating a person for acute or chronic alcohol abuse.
GGT can be used to know a person's chronic alcohol abuse status (GGT increases in about 75% of chronic drinkers). It may sometimes be used to monitor alcohol use or abuse in people being treated for alcoholism or alcoholic hepatitis.
If GGT is low or normal, but ALP is elevated, it is more likely due to bone disease.
Nút mạch điều trị ung thư gan
Ung thư gan gây tình trạng hoạt độ GGT trong máu tăng

A low or normal result does not rule out that the person does not have liver disease or do not drink alcohol. Drugs that can increase GGT levels include phenytoin, carbamazepine, and sedatives such as phenobarbital. Using a variety of other prescription and over-the-counter medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), lipid-lowering medications, antibiotics, and histamine receptor blockers (used to treat acid secretion reductions) stomach), antifungal drugs, antidepressants, and sex hormones such as testosterone can increase GGT levels.
Vinmec International General Hospital is one of the hospitals that not only ensures professional quality with a team of leading medical doctors, modern equipment and technology, but also stands out for its examination and consultation services. comprehensive and professional medical consultation and treatment; civilized, polite, safe and sterile medical examination and treatment space. Customers when choosing to perform tests here can be completely assured of the accuracy of test results.
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Customers can directly go to Vinmec Health system nationwide to visit or contact the hotline here for support.
Articles refer to the source: mayocliniclabs.com
What causes the ggt index to rise? What is the AST and normal - low - high levels What do liver function tests include? Instructions for viewing liver test indicators

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