HPV in men - What you need to know

Article written by Doctor of Urology Department, Vinmec Central Park International General Hospital

As in women, HPV can cause genital warts in men in the genital area. Although not so common, certain types of HPV in men also put men at risk of genital cancer.

1. What are genital warts (HPV)?

Human genital warts (Human Papiloma Virus - HPV) is a common virus. Most people who are sexually active will get HPV at some point in their lives.
There are more than 40 types of HPV that are transmitted through sexual contact. These types can infect the male genital area, including the skin on and around the penis or anus. The virus can also infect the mouth and throat.

2. How are men infected with HPV?

HPV is transmitted through sexual contact, most commonly during anal and vaginal sex. HPV can also be transmitted through oral sex. Because HPV often has no symptoms, most men and women can get HPV and transmit it without realizing it. HPV may have been infected many years before they started having sex. Even men with only one sexual partner can get HPV.
nhu cầu tình dục
HPV lây nhiễm quan đường tình dục

3. What health problems does HPV cause in men?

Most men with HPV infection (of any kind) are usually asymptomatic and do not cause any health problems. But certain types of HPV can cause genital warts. Others can cause cancer of the penis, anus, or pharynx. The type of HPV that causes genital warts is not the same as the type of HPV that causes cancer. However, anal cancer is not the same as colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer is more common than anal cancer and is not caused by HPV.

4. How common are health problems related to HPV in men?

About 1% of sexually active men in the United States have genital warts. Accordingly, cancers of the penis, anus, and oropharynx are uncommon and only a few of these cancers are actually associated with HPV. Each year in the United States approximately:
400 men develop HPV-related penile cancer, approximately 1,500 men develop HPV-related anal cancer, approximately 5,600 men develop oropharyngeal cancer, but many Cancer cases are linked to tobacco and alcohol use, not HPV.
Some men have a higher risk of HPV than others:
Gay and bisexual men (who have sex with other men) are about 17 times more likely to develop anal cancer than others. Men only have sex with women. Men with weakened immune systems, including those with HIV, are more likely to develop anal cancer than other men. HIV-infected men are also more likely to develop severe, hard-to-treat genital warts.

5. Signs and symptoms of HPV in men

Most men infected with HPV have no symptoms and cause no health problems. But for some people, some of the following symptoms and signs may be experienced:

5.1. Genital warts

One or more warts on the penis, testicles, groin, thighs, inside or around the anus. Warts can appear singly, in groups, raised above the surface, or shaped like cauliflower. These warts are usually painless. Warts can appear within weeks or months of sexual contact with someone who has HPV.
Mụn cóc HPV
HPV ở nam giới gây ra mụn cóc ở dương vật

5.2. Anal cancer

Sometimes there are no signs or symptoms. Anal bleeding, pain, itching, or discharge. Swollen lymph nodes in the anal or groin area. Change in bowel habits or stool shape.

5.3. Penile cancer

Early signs: color change, skin thickening, or tissue buildup on the penis. Late sign: warts or hard sores on the penis. Lesions are usually painless, but in some cases, can cause pain and bleeding.

5.4. Oropharyngeal cancer

Persistent sore throat or ear pain Frequent cough Pain or difficulty swallowing or breathing Weight loss Voice changes lasting more than 2 weeks Tumor in the neck

6. Is there an HPV test in men?

Currently, there is no HPV screening test for men. The commercially accepted HPV tests are for cervical cancer screening in women. These tests are not useful for screening for HPV-related cancers or genital warts in men.
Screening for anal cancer is not routinely recommended for men. This is because there isn't enough evidence to determine whether screening can actually prevent anal cancer. However, some experts recommend yearly anal cancer screening (anal Pap test) for gay men, bisexual men, and people with HIV because anal cancer is more common among men. this statue. There is no approved test to screen for genital warts in men and women. Genital warts are easy to spot. If you think you may have genital warts, see your doctor for advice. There is no test to check a man's generalized "HPV" status. But HPV usually goes away on its own without causing any health problems. So a person who gets HPV today will most likely not see it again in about a year or two. There is no screening test for penile cancer. However, you can check for any abnormalities on the penis, scrotum, or around the anus. See your doctor if you notice warts, blisters, sores, white patches, or other unusual areas on the penis, even if they're painless
Khám bệnh
Bạn nên đi khám bệnh sĩ nếu gặp các triệu chứng của bệnh HPV

7. Is there a treatment or cure for HPV?

There is no cure or cure for HPV. But there are ways that can treat health problems caused by HPV in men.
Genital warts can be treated with medication, removal (surgery), electrocautery, or coagulation. Some treatments may be performed by your doctor during your visit. Some measures can be taken at home by the patient himself. Accordingly, there is no better treatment than the other. Warts usually reappear within a few months. Therefore, the patient should know some treatment methods. Treating genital warts does not necessarily reduce the risk of transmitting HPV to a sexual partner. If warts are left untreated, they may go away on their own, remain unchanged or grow (in size or number), and they will not turn cancerous.
Cancer of the penis, anus, and oropharynx can be treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Often, two or more treatments are used in combination. Patients should decide which treatment is best for them.

8. Is there a way to reduce the risk of getting HPV?

The most effective way to prevent HPV is the HPV vaccine (Gardasil). Vaccines can protect boys and men against the types of HPV that commonly cause genital warts and anal cancer. Vaccines - the vaccine is given in 3 doses over six months.
Condoms (if used with every sexual act, end-to-end) can reduce the risk of transmitting HPV to a sexual partner or HPV-related diseases. But HPV can infect other areas not covered by a condom. So condoms may not fully protect you against HPV.
Because HPV is so common and often invisible, the best prevention is not to have sex. Even people who have only one sexual partner for life can still get HPV, if their sexual partner is infected with HPV.
Bao cao su
Hãy sử dụng bao cao su

9. FAQ about HPV

9.1. I heard about a new HPV vaccine - can it help me?

If you are 26 years old or younger, there is an HPV vaccine that can help protect you against the types of HPV that commonly infect men. The HPV vaccine (Gardasil) works by preventing four common types of HPV, two that cause genital warts and two that cause cancer, including anal cancer. The vaccine can protect against newly infected HPV but does not cure already infected HPV or previous HPV-related disease such as genital warts. The vaccine is most effective when it is given before having sex for the first time (that is, when the person has not been exposed to HPV).
CDC recommends HPV vaccination for all boys ages 11 to 12, and for men up to age 21, who have not received all three doses. This medication is also recommended for gay and bisexual men (or any man who has sex with men), and men up to the age of 26 with a weakened immune system (including HIV infection). HIV), if they were not fully vaccinated at a young age. This vaccine is safe for all men up to age 26, but is most effective when given at a younger age.
The HPV vaccine is very safe and effective, with no serious side effects. The most common side effect is pain in the arm. Studies show that vaccines can protect people from genital warts and anal cancer. The vaccine may also protect men from other types of HPV-related cancers, such as penile and oropharyngeal cancers, but there have been no studies evaluating these results.

9.2. I just found out my sex partner has HPV, what does it mean for my health?

Your sexual partner can infect you with HPV. If you have lived with that person for a long time, you most likely have HPV. Most people who are sexually active will get HPV at some point in their lives. Although HPV is very common, health problems caused by HPV are less common.
If used with every sexual act, from beginning to end, condoms can reduce the risk of HPV infection and HPV-related diseases. You can discuss with your doctor about getting the HPV vaccine if you're 26 years old or younger. Not having sex is the only way to avoid HPV.
If your partner has genital warts, you should avoid sex until the warts have been treated. You should also regularly check for abnormalities on your penis, such as genital warts. In addition, you can go to medical facilities to be screened for genital warts and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
Quan hệ tình dục và bệnh tim
Nếu bạn tình bị HPV thì không nên quan hệ tình dục

9.3. What does that mean for our relationship?

A person can have HPV for many years before it is detected or causes health problems. So there is no way to know if your sexual partner has infected you with HPV, or vice versa. HPV is not a sign that you or your partner is having outside sex.

9.4. I just found out I have genital warts, what does that mean for me and my partner?

Having genital warts can be a difficult situation to deal with, but they are not a threat to your health. People with genital warts can still live a normal, healthy life like everyone else.
Because genital warts can be easily transmitted to your sexual partner, you should notify them of this and avoid sexual activity until the warts have disappeared or been removed. There are ways to protect your sexual partner from contracting HPV. You and your partner may benefit from being screened for other STDs.
If used with all sexual acts, condoms can reduce the chance of getting genital warts. But HPV can infect other areas that are not protected. So condoms may not fully protect against HPV.
It is important that your sexual partner discuss your health and risk of STIs with you. However, it is not clear if there is any benefit to informing a prospective sexual partner about having had genital warts in the past because it is not known how long a person continues to be contagious when they have had genital warts. Warts disappear.
Currently in the community, HPV virus is still widely known as a cause of cervical cancer in women. However, the reality is that both men and women can be infected with HPV and pass it on to others without even knowing it. HPV infection in men also causes mild to serious health problems, including genital warts and certain types of cancer. Therefore, men need to know the signs and risks, as well as how to prevent HPV virus in men effectively.
To book an appointment for examination and treatment at Vinmec International General Hospital, you can contact Vinmec Health System nationwide, or register online HERE.

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