Diagnostic criteria for type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is caused by the person's own immune system destroying the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. To diagnose type 1 diabetes will have its own diagnostic criteria.
1. Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes
The usual signs of type 1 diabetes are often difficult to detect, but the symptoms can become severe and are easily detected such as:
Excessive thirst Fast hunger even after eating Dry mouth Abdominal pain and vomiting Go away Frequent urination Unexplained weight loss, even though you are eating a lot and often feel hungry Fatigue Blurry vision Rapid, deep breathing in (also known as Kussmaul breathing) Skin infections, infections urinary tract or vagina Irritability or mood swings Nocturnal enuresis in children without prior enuresis
Emergency signs with type 1 diabetes include:
Confusion Rapid breathing Fruity smell to your breath Abdominal pain Loss of consciousness (rare)
2. Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes
Tests done to diagnose type 1 diabetes include:
2.1 HbA1c test (Hemoglobin A1c Test) Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying pigment that gives blood its bright red color and is also the predominant protein in red cells bridge . About 90% of hemoglobin is hemoglobin A. Although one chemical makes up 92% of hemoglobin A, about 8% of hemoglobin A is made up of minor chemically different components, including hemoglobin A1c, A1b, A1a1, and A1a2. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a small component of hemoglobin that is bound to glucose. HbA1c is also sometimes called glycated, glycosylated hemoglobin, or glycohemoglobin. The HbA1c test is done by taking a blood sample from the patient. Because HbA1c is not affected by short-term fluctuations in blood glucose levels (eg, if the patient has just eaten), doctors will draw blood from the patient to test for HbA1c regardless of the most recent meal. of the patient.
For healthy people, the HbA1c level is less than 6% of total hemoglobin. If there are two separate tests with a result of 6.5%, it may be a sign that the patient is having diabetes. Studies have demonstrated that diabetes complications can be delayed or prevented if a person keeps HbA1c below 7%. Therefore, it is recommended that diabetes treatment be directed toward the goal of keeping the patient's HbA1c level as close to normal as possible (<6%) without hypoglycemia. 2.2 Random blood sugar test If the patient's blood sugar is checked at any time of the day and the result is 200 mg/dL or higher, this is an indication that the patient has diabetes. may have diabetes.
2.3 Fasting plasma glucose test The doctor will do this test in the morning, before the patient eats. You may have diabetes if your blood glucose level is 126 mg/dL or higher on two separate tests.
During regular visits, the doctor will check the patient's HbA1C level to adjust the treatment regimen. Treatment goals for HbA1C control will vary depending on the patient's age and other factors, but the American Diabetes Association generally recommends that HbA1C levels should be below 7%, which equates to an average glucose level of about 154mg. /dL (8.5 mmol/L). Compared to daily blood glucose testing, HbA1C testing is better for helping doctors see the effectiveness of treatment and adjust diabetes treatment plans. Elevated HbA1C levels may signal the need for a change in insulin dosage, diet, or both. In addition to the HbA1C test, your doctor will also periodically take blood and urine samples to check your cholesterol levels and evaluate thyroid function, liver function, and kidney function. At the same time, the doctor will also regularly check the blood pressure and the locations on the body where the patient regularly checks blood sugar and insulin injections every day.
To screen for diabetes, currently at Vinmec hospital, we have deployed a screening package for diabetes and dyslipidemia to help detect pre-diabetes early, accurately classify diabetes type, and develop a treatment plan. nutrition, monitoring to minimize the risks and complications caused by diabetes.
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